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Blind spot monitoring

At both sides of a vehicle normally there are some blind spots, if using a mirror for back ward view. Different systems can either provide better vision into the blind spot area or supplemental information regarding an obstacle being there, e.g. by warning signals. Wide angle side mirrors reduce the blind spot area. If the mirrors are heated, the vision in bad weather conditions is optimised further on. Camera techniques with image processing or radar sensors can give addition information about the situation in the blind spot. An adequate HMI solution is generally a prerequisite for an effective system.

No reliable safety estimates yet exist. The system should affect side collisions i.e. collisions of vehicles in parallel lanes by making the drivers better aware of vehicles in close proximity.

Results Methods Author(s) Year Publication details
The results suggest that the effects of the system may be dependent on the driver¿s age. Older vehicle owners reported checking side mirrors while changing lanes with blind spot monitoring more often than younger vehicle owners. The results are based on a questionnaire which was disseminated to owners of vehicles equipped with the system in the US. 215 responses were received and analysed. Cicchino, J. B. and McCartt, A. T. 2015 Experiences of Model Year 2011 Dodge and Jeep Owners With Collision Avoidance and Related Technologies. Traffic Injury Prevention Vol. 16, Issue 3, pp. 298-303.
The system reduced driving speed when negotiating curves. Lane choice and lane changes also improved when the system was active. No effects on speed limit compliance or driving speed in general were found. When the system was active, test drivers made turns at intersections with too high speeds. More errors with dangerous distance to the side were also observed when the system was active. The only difference in drivers¿ emotional state was the increased level of irritation when driving with the system active. An advanced driver assistance system developed by the InteractIVe project was tested in the study. The system provided visual, auditory and haptic warnings to the driver and included speed alert, curve speed warning, forward collision warning and blind spot monitoring functionalities. The impacts of the system were measured with test drives in which 24 drivers participated. The test drivers drove the test route twice serving as their own controls. In addition to automated driver monitoring, driver behaviour was observed using the Wiener Fahrprobe method. The drivers¿ comprehension of the system and reactions to the functions were studied with a questionnaire. Várhelyi, A., Kaufmann, C. and Persson, A. 2015 User-related assessment of a Driver Assistance System for Continuous Support ¿ A field trial. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. Vol 30 pp.128-144
The study analysed the impact of a blind spot monitoring system installed in heavy trucks. The average number of safety critical events per 10,000 miles was reduced from 3.50 to 2.55 (-27%). The results were statistically significant at the p-level=0.0539. The results are based on a field test carried out with heavy trucks in the US. The study included a two months baseline period and a four months intervention period. The analysed data included monitoring results for 19 truck drivers. The number of safety related events (e.g. conflicts and hard braking manoeuvres) was compared between the baseline and intervention periods. Schaudt, W.A, Bowman, D.S., Hanowski, R.J., Olson, R.L, Marinik, A., Soccolich, S., Joslin, S., Toole, L., Rice, J.C. 2014 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration¿s Advanced System Testing Utilizing a Data Acquisition System on the Highways (FAST DASH): Safety Technology Evaluation Project #1 Blindspot Warning. Virginia Technical Transportation Institute.
The results suggest that a haptic blind spot warning through steering wheel would be more effective than a haptic warning through seat belt. The results are based on a simulator experiment with 24 participants and statistical analysis of collision prevention rate and the minimum distance by which a collision was avoided. Chun, J., Lee, I., Park, G., Seo, J., Choi, S. and Han, S. H. 2013 Efficacy of haptic blind spot warnings applied through a steering wheel or a seatbelt, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 21, November 2013, pp. 231-241.
Use of turn signal was reduced by approximately 10% when a blind spot information system was in use. Only few relevant incidents (near-crash events) could be identified during the field test, and no statistically significant difference between baseline (driving without the system) and treatment period (driving with a blind spot information system) could be found. The results are based on data collected with a field operational test in Sweden. The study involved a baseline period of three months and a test period of nine months. Malta, L., Aust, M. L., Faber, F., Metz, B., Saint Pierre, P., Benmimoun, M. and Schäfer, R. 2012 Final results: Impacts on traffic safety, EuroFOT Deliverable D6.4
Blind spot monitoring system was found to reduce the frequency of injury claims from insurance company (-3.6% for bodily injury liability, -26.5% for medical payments and -7.2% for personal injury protection) but the reductions of the frequencies of various types of claims were not statistically significant. The results are based on a regression analysis made for a data set collected from insurance companies in USA. Vehicles of the same model year not equipped with the system were used as a control group. Highway Loss Data Institute 2012 Mercedes-Benz collision avoidance features: initial results. Highway loss data institute: Bulletin Vol. 29, No. 7 : April 2012.
Blind spot monitoring system was found to reduce the frequency of property damage liability claims by 2.4% although the result was not statistically significant. The results indicated a 1.3% increase in the frequency of collision insurance claims and a reduction of 159$ in the average severity of the claims. The reduction in the severity of claims was statistically significant. Results for impacts on injuries were partly contradictory and not statistically significant. The results are based on a regression analysis made for a data set collected from insurance companies in USA. Vehicles of the same make and model year were used as a control group. Highway Loss Data Institute 2012 Volvo collision avoidance features: initial results. Highway loss data institute: Bulletin Vol. 29, No. 5 : April 2012.
Blind spot monitoring systems were found to have potential to prevent or mitigate 393 fatal accidents and 20,000 injury accidents annually in USA. Databases of accidents reported by the police were used to identify accidents which could have been prevented or mitigated. Information related to reported accidents such as vehicle damage location, road characteristics, time of day and pre-crash manoeuvres was used to determine whether the accident was relevant or not. The study analysed only the potential the systems have to prevent accidents but not their effectiveness. Jermakian, J. S. 2011 Crash avoidance potential of four passenger vehicle technologies. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 43, Issue 3, pp. 732-740.
The integrated crash warning system increased turn signal use in the treatment period. No negative behavioural adaptation effects related to involvement in secondary tasks were observed. The impacts of an integrated driver assistance system consisting of forward collision warning, lateral drift warning, lane change-merge warning and curve speed warning were studied with a field test. The field operational test involved 108 passenger car drivers and a testing period of 40 days. The first 12 days of the testing period were the baseline against which the latter part of the period was compared. Sayer, J. R., Bogard, S. E., Buonarosa, M. L., LeBlanc, D. J., Funkhouser, D. S., Bao, S., Blankespoor, A. D. & Winkler, C. B. 2011 Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems Light-Vehicle Field Operational Test Key Findings Report. U.S. DOT, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
The integrated warning system was found to have a statistically significant but small effect on lateral offset (distance between lane centreline and vehicle centreline). On limited access roads, drivers maintained a position slightly closer to the centre of the lane. The results are based on a field test in which a fleet of 10 heavy trucks was equipped with an integrated warning system including forward collision warning, lane change/merge and lane departure warning functions. The field test involved 18 drivers and included a testing period of 10 months with two months of baseline driving and eight months of treatment period. Sayer, J. R., Bogard, S. E., Funkhouser, D., LeBlanc, D. J., Bao, S., Blankespoor, A. D., Buonarosa, M. L. & Winkler C. B. 2010 Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems Heavy-Truck Field Operational Test Key Findings Report. U.S. DOT.
Blind spot detection/Lane change warning was found to have potential to prevent 5.0% of crashes involving large trucks included in the LTCCS database The estimates are based on real-world crash data collected in Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) which was conducted from 2001 to 2003. The LTCCS study conducted on-scene investigations for real-world crashes and produced a database of 1070 accidents. This data was used to make case by case estimations of the applicability of crash avoidance countermeasures for each crash based on expert knowledge on the analysed systems and their effectiveness in various crash scenarios. Kingsley, K. J. 2009 Evaluating crash avoidance countermeasures using data from FMCS's/NHTSA's large truck accident causation study. Proceedings of the 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Conference (ESV) - International Congress Center Stuttgart, Germany, June 15–18, 2009.